It is never too late to be what you might have been.

― George Eliot

# 1
Politics & Government

News and Alerts ( 04/07/2024 )

Yesterday, Dwayne Johnson told Fox News that some things were bugging him are today’s Cancel Culture, Woke Culture, division and etcetera!

“ I either succumb and be what I think other people want me to be, or to go! I'm going to be myself and I'm going to be real. If you ask me something, a real answer is important, and the truthful answer is important, and that may get people upset and piss off. And that's okay, But it took me some time to recognize that."

Actually, not inly you , it took others some time to recognize that too! Be yourself ! A real person! 


Comments(9)
Views(93)

# 2
Business & Economy

Observation Org (US) ( 04/05/2024 )

The $20 dollar per hour minimum wage in California was originally expected to improve the standard of living for fast-food workers.   

But, in reality many workers are now facing layoffs and reduced job opportunities instead of benefiting from this increase.

Only a few days after the 4/1, fast food industry has laid off thousand jobs across the state.

Expectation is not the same as the reality! Some times a ideal regulation is not helpful and useful in real circumstance!


Comments(7)
Views(69)

# 3
Environment Observation

News and Alerts ( 04/04/2024 )

In 1972, Broward Artificial Reef Inc. (BARINC) devised a “strategy” - throwing millions of tires into the ocean near Fort Lauderdale Florida  in order to aid marine life, but it eventually leads to a disaster!

Several years later, they found out that rubber tiers did not form artificial reefs but they created a huge amount of pollution to the ocean floor when the tiers broke apart! 

The toxic chemicals of tiers are dissolved into the sea water and poisoned hundreds and thousands of fishes! The floating underwater tiers are not protecting the coral reefs but instead they gradually destroy even more reefs ! 

It proves again that ignorance is one source of disaster! 


Comments(10)
Views(106)

# 4
Home & Garden

Terry Cohen ( 04/03/2024 )

In USA, Some township may require a 5 square feet egress regulations for single / double hung windows, so how do we know the minimum size for the windows? Here is the calculation. 

1 square foot = 144 square inches 

5 square feet = 720 square inches! 

The single hung window can only open up or down unit so the length of window is cut into half. 

Assuming we have a 36 inch wide window, so 5 square feet egress regulations for single / double hung window is (36 x 20 )inches = 720 square inches . The min requirement of full window size is 36 “ x 40” !

Assuming we have a 32 inches wide window, then we need a full window size 32 “x 45 “! 



Comments(5)
Views(47)

# 5
Human Rights

Observation Org(Human Rights) ( 03/29/2024 )

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Table of Contents
Entry into force: 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49

Preamble

The States Parties to the present Covenant,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant, Agree upon the following articles:


PART I

Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

PART II

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.


Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.


Article 4

1 . In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.

2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision.
3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.


Article 5

1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.

2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.


PART III

Article 6

1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.

3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.

5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.

6. Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant.


Article 7

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.


Article 8

1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited.

2. No one shall be held in servitude.

3.
(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;

(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;

(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:

(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b), normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;

(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection is recognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;

(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;

(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.


Article 9

1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.


Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.

2.
(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;
(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.

3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.


Article 11

No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation.


Article 12

1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.

3. The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant.

4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.


Article 13

An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent authority.


Article 14

1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: 

(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offense and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.

7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offense for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.


Article 15

1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.


Article 16

Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.


Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.


Article 18

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.


Article 19

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.


Article 20

1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.


Article 21

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.


Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organization Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.


Article 23

1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

2. The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized.

3. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

4. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children.


Article 24

1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.

3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.


Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives;
(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors;
(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.


Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.


Article 27

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.



PART IV

Article 28

1. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity.


Article 29

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the States Parties to the present Covenant.

2. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons. These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.

3. A person shall be eligible for renomination.


Article 30

1. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.

2. At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.

4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.


Article 31

1. The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.

2. In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems.


Article 32

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in article 30, paragraph 4.

2. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articles of this part of the present Covenant.


Article 33

1. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.

2. In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect.


Article 34

1. When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of the member to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the present Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant. The election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance with the relevant provisions of this part of the present Covenant.

3. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder of the term of the member who vacated the seat on the Committee under the provisions of that article.


Article 35

The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee's responsibilities.

Article 36

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant.

Article 37

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the Committee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.

2. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.

3. The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.


Article 38

Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in open committee that he will perform his functions impartially and conscientiously.


Article 39

1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They may be re-elected.

2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;
(b) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.


Article 40

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made in the enjoyment of those rights: (a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant for the States Parties concerned;
(b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.

2. All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee for consideration. Reports shall indicate the factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee, transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as may fall within their field of competence.

4. The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties to the present Covenant. It shall transmit its reports, and such general comments as it may consider appropriate, to the States Parties. The Committee may also transmit to the Economic and Social Council these comments along with the copies of the reports it has received from States Parties to the present Covenant.

5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee observations on any comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.


Article 41

1. A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present Covenant. Communications under this article may be received and considered only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:

(a) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an explanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available in the matter;

(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State;

(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;

(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this article;

(e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee shall make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the present Covenant;

(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), to supply any relevant information;

(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered in the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in writing;

(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph (b), submit a report:

(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report. In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.

2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present Covenant have made declarations under paragraph I of this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no further communication by any State Party shall be received after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.


Article 42

1.
(a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent of the States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission). The good offices of the Commission shall be made available to the States Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the present Covenant;
(b) The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties concerned. If the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of the composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission concerning whom no agreement has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the Committee from among its members.

2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity. They shall not be nationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, or of a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.

3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.

4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva. However, they may be held at such other convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the States Parties concerned.

5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also service the commissions appointed under this article.

6. The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made available to the Commission and the Commission may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any other relevant information.

7. When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event not later than twelve months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the Committee a report for communication to the States Parties concerned:

(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter within twelve months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of the status of its consideration of the matter;

(b) If an amicable solution to the matter on tie basis of respect for human rights as recognized in the present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(c) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (b) is not reached, the Commission's report shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between the States Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable solution of the matter. This report shall also contain the written submissions and a record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned;

(d) If the Commission's report is submitted under subparagraph (c), the States Parties concerned shall, within three months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the Committee whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.

8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.

9. The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of the members of the Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.


Article 43

The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be appointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.


Article 44

The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties to the present Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them.


Article 45

The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the Economic and Social Council, an annual report on its activities.



PART V

Article 46

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.


Article 47

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.



PART VI

Article 48

1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the present Covenant.

2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.

4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed this Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.


Article 49

1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.


Article 50

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.
Article 51

1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.

2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. 3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.


Article 52

1. Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the following particulars:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;

(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 49 and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 51.


Article 53

1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.


    — End —


Comments(8)
Views(101)

# 6
General Life & Law

News and Alerts ( 03/26/2024 )

On Monday , the Combs’s homes in Los Angeles and Miami were searched by FBI with Homeland Security Investigators and other law enforcement. 

According to open media, several lawsuits were filed late last year raising allegations of sexual assault and rape against Combs! 

Combs owns the company Bad Boy Records and is a three-time Grammy winner, a hip-hop producer and an executive.

This case reminds us the case of Bill Cosby! Hopefully it won’t end up like that! Do black people have the privilege of law? Why were most sex assault cases being dropped when the defendants are black people? 



Comments(17)
Views(191)

# 7
Safty & Security Alerts

News and Alerts ( 03/26/2024 )

(3/26) The container ship Dali crashed into the Francis Scott Key Bridge in Baltimore on Tuesday. Is it an Accident or a terrorist Attack? 

The ship, owned by GRACE OCEAN INVESTMENT LTD, Hong Kong, which was sailing under the Singaporean flag, was on its way to Sri Lanka! 

GRACE OCEAN INVESTMENT LTD is a company in Hong Kong which is located on Room J, 11th Floor, Tsun Win Factory Building, Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong !

Some people have a doubt on this accident according to its background and ownership! More evidences are needed for investigation! 


Comments(15)
Views(168)

# 8
Human Rights

News and Alerts ( 03/19/2024 )

According to a lawsuit filed Monday in a NY district court, a former NYPD aide, Lorna Beach-Mathura , is suing New York City Mayor Eric Adams, alleging he sexually assaulted her in 1993 when she was asking for a promotion and things ended up with a demanding sexual acts in exchange,

The description of sensual harassment by plaintiff is looked so flawless and detailed, leading us to believe that iit was happening like this before! When this case goes to Grand Juries and it is believed that it will get approved for indictments! 


Comments(28)
Views(261)

# 9
Media & News

News and Alerts ( 03/04/2024 )

The Supreme Court conclude that states may disqualify persons holding or attempting to hold state office, But states have no power under the Constitution to enforce Sections 3 with respect to federal offices, especially the presidency!

The nine justices also agree that only Congress can enforce the 14th Amendment's provisions against federal officials and candidates.

This is the final judgment! It applies to the argument raised by Colorado, Maine and Illinois! By our observation, the far Left Wing of democrat party is failed again to stop Trump for presidency! 



Comments(13)
Views(171)

# 10
Media & News

Penn’s News Alert ( 02/29/2024 )

Mr Biden's second border visit of his presidency, is just a political show before the election. He will not stop the illegal immigration’s intrusion on the southern border! 

During Biden’s presidency till now, more than 6.3 million illegal migrants have entered into the US! It has overwhelmed social services in major American cities to the edge of cliff.


Comments(7)
Views(119)

# 11
IT & Computer & AI

Internet technology ( 02/18/2024 )


This error usually occurs because of macro security settings. If you know that the macro comes from a source that you trust, you can change your macro security settings to allow you to enable the macro. The way that you change your macro security settings depends on the Microsoft Office System program that you are using. The error is like below image.


Solution:

1. Click on the Windows "Start" button 

2. Go to "Control Panel"

3. Select  "Programs and Features "

4. On the "Uninstall a program" page, select "Microsoft Office [suite] 2007/2010" and then right click on it. It will show up a "Uninstall or Change" message. Select "Change" and then It will pop up a  "Add or Remove Features" page.

5. Check "Office Shared Features" and set to "Run from my computer".

6. After you install all components, restart your PC. That is it.









Comments(5)
Views(117)

# 12
Politics & Government

Observation Org (UK & Europe ) ( 02/16/2024 )

An absolute power brings an absolute evil! A dictator who owns an absolute power is the source of tragedy! God knows what they are doing! The whole world is watching them but they still are flagrantly proceeding evil activities! 

Alexei Navalny, 47, the political rival of Russian Dictator Vladimir Putin, who survived a poisoning and spent months in isolation, died in an Arctic Circle maximum-security prison and it was believed that he was murdered by the evil regime of Putin! 

Same evil oppression method to Yevgeny Prigozhin and Alexei Navalny, and then who is the next … ? 

Karma will come to evil men one day! For sure! When the day comes, it will be the time for them to pay! 


Comments(17)
Views(279)

# 13
Politics & Government

News and Alerts ( 02/11/2024 )

Special counsel Robert Hur's report states that he does not recommend criminal charges against president Biden for mishandling classified documents. 

The reason is because he is an elderly man with a poor memory! He doesn’t know what he has done with the documents! 

In contrast, Former president Trump was charged with same offense of mishandling the classified documents!

Why is it different? 

Interesting!




Comments(12)
Views(195)

# 14
Media & News

News and Alerts ( 02/11/2024 )

Today is the Lunar New Year!

Happy New Year!  




Comments(8)
Views(155)

# 15
Politics & Government

Observation Org(Human Rights) ( 02/06/2024 )

A scorpion wants to cross a river but it cannot swim, so it asks a frog to carry it across. 

The frog is afraid that the scorpion might sting, so it refuses  the scorpion. 

But the scorpion promises the frog that it will not sting, and pointing out that it would drown if it killed the frog in the middle of the river. 

The frog considers the argument sensible and agrees to carry the scorpion. In the midway of the river, the scorpion stings the frog anyway, dooming them both. 

The dying frog asked the scorpion why it stung despite knowing the consequence!

The scorpion replied: "I am sorry, but I couldn't resist the urge. It's my root character."
Comments(18)
Views(215)

# 16
Human Rights

Observation Org(Human Rights) ( 02/06/2024 )

11/7/2023, Australia prime minister Albanese visited Communist China and was seeking friendship and business with CCP! In a traditional way of left wing, Australia Labor Party (ALP) has more close relationships to Communist Party than others! However, some Australians don’t really understand the scorpion character of CCP and the Labor Party leader Albanese is one of them! 

2/6/2024, two months later, Communist China gave an Australian citizen Dr. Yang a suspended death sentence. Yang Hengjun was accused of espionage and put in detention in 2019. Suddenly, Mr. Albanese realizes that CCP is not a real friend of Australia! At least it is not a friend of ALP! 

At a press conference on Tuesday, Mr Albanese said: “We have conveyed, firstly, to China our dismay, our despair, our frustration, but to put it really simply, our outrage at this verdict, We have conveyed our outrage”!

“This is a very harsh sentence on Dr Yang who is a man not in good health and we will continue to make the strongest representations.“

However, Emperor Xi does not care a life of a slave! This sentence is as expected! CCP doesn’t care about neither the human rights nor relationships! The benefit of CCP is the first priority and most important thing to communists! 

Helping communists is just like a frog carrying a scorpion across the river!

The only ending of the story is a tragedy - A deadly lesson! 




Comments(17)
Views(308)

# 17
IT & Computer & AI

SKY Review ( 02/01/2024 )



1. Password - less sign-in: An encrypted password that is saved in the PC. How safe is it? Not really 100% safe! Solution: Do not save your password on the website.

2. Fingerprinting resistance: Some websites, particularly those using HTML5 Canvas, look at this unique combination of factors and assign you a number, or a “fingerprint”, which makes you identifiable across the Web. This “fingerprint” is potentially used to profile you for targeted content without the use of cookies.

Solution: you can close your browser and clean up all history and then reopen it.

3. Copy URL without site tracking: This is not really a matter. You can manually remove the Json or tracking key words on the URL.

4. Prevent sites from tracking and sharing data: A basic firewall can do much better job than the browser does tracking. Yes, Preventing sharing data can be done well on browser side.

5. Tracker content blocking: Yes, It works on browser setting.

6. Enforce user’s choice to not let websites sell their data: How? It does not say it in details.







Comments(8)
Views(186)

# 18
Politics & Government

Observation Org (US) ( 01/31/2024 )

Pro-Palestinian protesters of Code Pink posted a video on X on Monday that showed Nancy Pelosi interacting with them In last October. 

Pelosi told protesters to ‘go back to China where their headquarter is!” 

According to a New York Times report, Code Pink is likely connecting to a Chinese communist propaganda network. 

However, more people believe that protesters calling for a cease-fire in Gaza are "connected to Russia."

Either way, the Code Pink’s complicated background is likely relating to any foreign countries!


Comments(25)
Views(302)

# 19
Media & News

Penn’s News Alert ( 01/22/2024 )

Florida governor Ron DeSantis endorsed Donal Trump and criticized Nikki Haley. The following is his statement: 


“ It’s clear to me that a majority of Republican primary voters want to give Donald Trump another chance. They watched his presidency get stymied by relentless resistance and they see Democrats using lawfare to this day to attack him. While I have had disagreements with Donald Trump, such as on the coronavirus pandemic and his elevation of Anthony Fauci, Trump is superior to the current incumbent, Joe Biden. That is clear.I signed a pledge to support the Republican nominee and I will honor that pledge. He has my endorsement because we can’t go back to the old Republican guard of yesteryear — a repackaged form of warmed-over corporatism — that Nikki Haley represents.” 

He confirmed the suspension of his 2024 presidential campaign today. 


Comments(15)
Views(238)

# 20
Politics & Government

Penn’s News Alert ( 01/22/2024 )

Pennsylvania Sen. John Fetterman endorsed Rep. Andy Kim in the congressman’s bid to replace the corrupt Sen. Bob Menendez!

Fetterman said : I feel very secure knowing that Kim has no gold bars underneath his mattress and won’t ever be accused of being a foreign agent for Egypt or Qatar!


Comments(11)
Views(261)

# 21
Politics & Government

Observation Org (UK & Europe ) ( 01/17/2024 )

Politico UK revealed a shocking document that indicated Liza Truss who was helping unknown individuals to approach the Business &Trade Secretary on approval of weapon to Communist China! The report shocks entire nation on Monday! 

In a private letter dated August 2023, Truss asked Business & Trade Secretary Kemi Badenoch to intervene on behalf of a British defense manufacturer hoping to sell military equipment to China.

The UK company Richmond Defense Systems is planning to export landmine disposal equipment to the People's Republic of China( Communist China) that could be used by PLA in an invasion of Taiwan. 

Fortunately, this deal was blocked by now and Truss’s request was rejected! 


Comments(33)
Views(302)

# 22
Education & Learning

Observation Org (US) ( 01/17/2024 )

1. Counting numbers: eg.  Thirty and thirteen! Wrong pronunciation on TY and TEEN! 

The correct pronunciation of thirty - Mandy, Andy, Daddy, Dirty >>>Thirty!

The correct pronunciation of thirteen- Been, Teenager, between, Teen >>> Thirteen! 

2. Confusion pronunciation on Beach and Bitch! Wrong pronunciation in EA and I! 

The correct pronunciation of Beach - Dear,  Pea, Flea, Tea  >>> Beach! 

The correct pronunciation of Bitch - Bit, Tip, Dig, Dick >>> Bitch! 

Hopefully it helps


Comments(12)
Views(261)

# 23
Politics & Government

News and Alerts ( 01/17/2024 )

On Monday, Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Mao Ning urged Philippines president Marcos to “read more books” to understand the Taiwan issue after he sent a congratulation message to Taiwan’s President-elect Lai Chingte. ( It is considered as a very rude comment to the president of Philippines ! ) 

Two days later, Teodoro said in a statement, “It is unfortunate that the PRC (People’s Republic of China) Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson stooped to such low and gutter level talk – resorting to insulting our President and the Filipino nation, and further debasing herself, the Ministry, and Party she represents in the process,”

“But then again, we should not at all be surprised — being a nation and people enjoying the privileges, rights, and freedoms of a democratic society — that an agent of a Party and system of government incompatible with our way of life and who routinely spouts State-sanctioned propaganda and disinformation would go that far and that low,”

Comments: He is right! It is nothing wrong to congratulate a president- elect of Taiwan! As it is a common sense and a fact that the People Republic of China(communist china) is not the same as the Republic of China(democratic Taiwan) ! Everyone should know it! 


Comments(17)
Views(233)

# 24
Politics & Government

Observation Org (US) ( 01/09/2024 )

Whoever using 1/6 protest as an excuse (or something like this ) to exclude a lawful citizen from the qualification of presidential election is likely a behavior of dirty “political business” that is on their ulterior purposes! Unfortunately, both Fulton County District Attorneys Mrs Willis and Mr Wade are likely doing a dirty business according to recent disclosure! 

On Monday, a 127-page filing of Michael Roman claims that Nathan Wade and Fannie Willis have been involved in a love affair! Mr Wade took romantic vacations with Mrs Willis using money he was paid for working on the Trump case. The vacation places are including Napa Valley, California, Florida and the Caribbean. Does Willis’s husband know about it? 

It also claims Willis and Wade are profiting significantly from this prosecution at the expense of the taxpayers that Wade was paid $654,000 in legal fees for his work on the case! Wow! It is really a good political business but it is such immoral! This is totally an abuse of legal power and they are using their authority as a weapon to prosecute a group of individuals! 

Please don’t let politics and legislation be a business benefit! 


Comments(34)
Views(332)

# 25
Politics & Government

News and Alerts ( 11/24/2023 )

Satellite Images Indicate China Is Upgrading Its Air Bases for War!

Air bases along China’s southeastern coast facing Taiwan specifically in Fujian Province have undergone significant infrastructure upgrades in recent years. 

These changes are a sign of Beijing’s preparations for a conflict over Taiwan. 

Last week, Chinese communist party chairman Xi told western leaders that Beijing was not prepared for invading Taiwan but the satellite images revealed that his lied! 

A dictator likely can never be trusted! 


Comments(10)
Views(257)

# 26
Media & News

Observation Org (US) ( 11/13/2023 )

According to the Wall Street Journal, male employees have remained in their jobs despite sending female workers pictures of their “ male identity organ” , inviting workers to a strip club, and declaring themselves having sexual relations with subordinates. 

The agency was also accused of tolerating a heavy drinking culture, with staffers having allegedly urinated off the roof and vomited in the lift of a FDIC hotel where employees stay for training.

What kind of working environment is it? 

This is a federal government’s department? 

This is what the taxpayers’s money paying for? 


Comments(27)
Views(345)

# 27
Home & Garden

SKY Review ( 11/08/2023 )

When your shower does not work properly, most times it is the cartridge of the faucet that goes wrong! It could be either blocked by the small sand, or it is aging on its rubber rings! 

To replace the faucet is easy! You don’t need to replace the whole thing. You just need to replace the existing cartridge of the faucet! Following steps will help.



Step 1, unscrew the handle of faucet and take it out.
Step 2, unscrew the faucet dish and take it off.

Step 3, now you will see the cartridge that is inside the faucet slot. You need to use force to pull it out.

Step 4, after you pull out the cartridge, you need to insert a new one. The most important part of this process is you must make sure you insert it correctly. Look at the HOT mark on the cartridge and it must be on the left hand side of the faucet! If you installed it the other way then your cold water will become hot water! Be aware!



Enjoy! 


Comments(10)
Views(306)

# 28
Media & News

News and Alerts ( 11/02/2023 )

In mid-November, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit will be held in San Francisco.  

The  White House spokeswoman Karine Jean-Pierre told a press conference that US President Joe Biden will meet with his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping in the summit!

Let see what will happen!


Comments(14)
Views(327)

# 29
Media & News

News and Alerts ( 11/02/2023 )

House Oversight Committee Chairman Comer has just released partial information about the investigation into Biden’s corruption and allegations on Wednesday!

Comer was vowing to "continue to follow the money" and to "hold President Biden accountable for his corruption."

In taking funds sourced to a CCP-linked company that wanted to advance China’s interests, vice president Joe Biden exposed himself to future blackmail and put America’s interests behind his own desire for money! 

In July 2017, Hunter Biden demanded a $10 million payment from a CEFC associate. He texted Mr. Zhao that he was sitting with his father and the Biden network would turn on his associate if he didn’t pony up the money!

Hunter Biden:  "you will regret not following my direction."

On 8/8/2017, the $5 million in funds were sent to Hudson West III, a joint-venture established by Hunter Biden and CEFC associate Gongwen Dong. The same day, Hudson West III sent $400,000 to Owasco, P.C.— a separate entity owned by Hunter Biden. 

On 8/14/2017, Hunter Biden wired $150,000 to Lion Hall Group, a company owned by James Biden and his wife Sara Biden. 

On 8/28/2017, Sara Biden withdrew $50,000 in cash from Lion Hall Group and later deposited it into her and James Biden’s personal checking account.

On 9/3/2017, Sara Biden cut a check to Joe Biden for $40,000 referring loan repayment.

On 3/28/2018, Americore wired a $200,000 loan into James and Sara Biden’s personal bank account and then, on the same day, James Biden wrote a $200,000 check from this same personal bank account to Joe Biden.


Comments(22)
Views(394)

# 30
General Life & Law

Finance Watching Org ( 10/13/2023 )

Step 1: File your Judgment (in the county where the debtor resides or owns property)

You need to win the case and get the judgment first! 

CAUTION: In order to keep judgement valid for 20 years, creditors should revive their judgments at least once every 5 years  by filing a revival of judgment with the respective county department of court records or Prothontary’s Office. 

Step 2: If the debtor doesn’t want to pay the debt, you can file with the department of court records a praecipe for a writ of execution. The writ is the “key”which allows the Sheriff to execute on a judgment.

Step 3. Seize Bank Accounts!

Deliver the writ of execution and “interrogatories to the garnishee” to the sheriff; and Direct the sheriff (through Sheriff instruction sheet) to serve the writ of execution and interrogatories to the garnishee.

Step 4. Have the Sheriff Levy and Sell Assets and Vehicles.

Step 5. Force a Sheriff Sale of any Land or Real Property Owned by the Debtors.


Comments(38)
Views(430)


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